Native culture and religion should be valued. They have made many contributions to North American society: an awareness of concern for the environment food staples such as corn, beans, squash, potatoes and sweet potatoes the design of the kayak, toboggan and snowshoe the original oral contraceptive, cotton over 200 drugs, derived from native remedies
It is ironic that the wine that is the Christians' most sacred substance, used in the Mass to represent the blood of their God, has caused such a trail of devastation within Native populations. And the Natives' most sacred substance, tobacco, has caused major health problems for so many Christians.
Religious traditions of aboriginal peoples
around the world tend to be heavily
influenced by their methods of acquiring food,
whether by hunting wild animals or by
agriculture. American Indian spirituality is
no exception. Their rituals and belief show
a blending of interest in promoting and
preserving their hunting and horticulture.
The arrival of Europeans marked a major change
in Native society. Tens of millions died due to
sickness, and programs of slavery and extermination.
Europeans and their missionaries looked upon
Native Spirituality as worthless superstition
inspired by the Christian devil, Satan. Many of
the survivors were forcibly converted to Christianity.
The US and Canadian governments instituted
policies to force Natives onto reservations
and to encourage them to become assimilated
into the majority culture. Some suicidologists
believe that the extremely high suicide
rate among Natives is due to the suppression
of their religion and culture by the Federal
Governments. This suppression is still seen in
the prison administrations; Canadian prisons have
only recently allowed Native sweat lodge ceremonies;
most American prisons routinely deny permission.
Natives today follow many spiritual traditions:
Many Native families today have been devout Christians for generations. Others, particularly in the Southwest have retained their aboriginal traditions more or less intact.
Most follow a personal faith that combines traditional and Christian elements.
Pan Indianism is a recent and growing movement which encourages a return to traditional beliefs, and seeks to create a common Native religion. The Native American Church is a continuation of the ancient Peyote Religion which had used a cactus with psychedelic properties called peyote for about 10,000 years. Incorporated in 1918, its original aim was to promote Christian beliefs and values, and to use the peyote sacrament. Although use of peyote is restricted to religious ritual which is protected by the US Constitution, and it is not harmful or habit forming, and has a multi-millennia tradition, there has been considerable opposition from Christian groups, from governments, and from within some tribes.
The traditional Inuit (Eskimo) culture is similar to those found in other circumpolar regions:
Northern Russia and the Northern Scandinavian countries. Life has been precarious; there are the double challenges of the cold, and the continual threat of starvation. The popular name for
the Inuit, "Eskimo", is not used by the Inuit.
Their religious belief is grounded in the belief that anua (souls) exist in all people and animals.
Individuals, families and the tribe must avoid a complex system of taboos to assure that animals will continue to make themselves available to the hunters. Many rituals and ceremonies are
performed before and after hunting expeditions to assure hunting success.
An underwater Goddess Sedna or Takanaluk is in charge of the sea mammals. She is part human and part fish. She observes how closely the tribe obeys the taboos and releases her
animals to the hunters accordingly. There is an corresponding array of deities who release land
mammals; these are Keepers or Masters, one for each species.
The Angakut or Shaman is the spiritual leader of each tribe. He is able to interpret the causes of sickness or lack of hunting success; he can determine the individual or family responsible and isolate the broken taboo. In a manner similar to Shamans in may other cultures, he enters a trance with the aid of drum beating and chanting. This allows his soul to leave his body and
traverse great distances to determine the causes of sickness and other community problems.
Native religions in these areas share some similarities, and differ significantly from Inuit culture described above. Tribes also differ greatly from each other. Spiritual elements found in some, but not all, non-Inuit native religions are:
A common concept is that of a dual divinity:
a Creator who is responsible for the creation of the world and is recognized in religious ritual and prayers
a mythical individual, a hero or trickster, who teaches culture, proper behavior and provides sustenance to the tribe.
There are also spirits which control the weather, spirits which interact with humans, and others who inhabit the underworld. Simultaneously the Creator and the spirits may be
perceived as a single spiritual force, as in the unity called Wakan-Tanka by the Lakota and Dakota.
Individual tribes have differing stories of Creation. One set of themes found in some tribes describes that in the beginning, the world was populated by many people.
Most were subsequently transformed into animals. Natives thus feel a close bond with animals because of their shared human ancestry. Dogs are excluded from this relationship. This bond is shown in the frequent rituals in which animal behavior is
simulated. Each species has its master; for example, the deer have a master deer who is larger than all the others. The master of humans is the Creator.
This is a concept found extensively in the Southwest. The
universe is believed to consist of many dark, underground layers through which the humans had to climb. They emerged into the present world through a small hole in the ground - the world's navel. Other tribes believe that their ancestors have been present in North America as far back as there were humans.
Many tribes have complex forms of writing. Other tribes have preserved their spiritual beliefs as an oral tradition.
In general, Native religions have no precise belief about life after death. Some believe in reincarnation, with a person being reborn either as a human or animal after death. Others believe that humans return as ghosts, or that people go to an other world. Others believe that nothing definitely can be known about one's fate after this life. Combinations of belief are common.
Again, many tribes have unique concepts of the world and its place in the universe. One theme found in some tribes understands the universe as being composed of multiple layers. The natural world as a middle segment These layers are thought to be
linked by the World Tree, which has its roots in the underground, has a trunk passing through the natural world, and has its top in the sky world.
Although the term "Shaman" has its origins in Siberia, it is often used by anthropologists throughout the world to refer to Aboriginal healers. Spirits may be encouraged to occupy the Shaman's body during public lodge ceremonies. Drum beating and chanting aid this process. The spirits are then asked to depart and perform the needed acts. Other times, Shamans enter into a trance and traverse the underworld or go great distances in this world to seek lost possessions or healing.
Young boys before or at puberty are encouraged to enter into a period of fasting, meditation and physical challenge. Girls are not usually eligible for a quest. He separates himself from the tribe and go to a wilderness area. The goal is to receive a
vision that will guide his development for the rest of his life. They also seek to acquire a guardian spirit who will be close and supportive for their lifetime.
The Sun Dance amongst the Plains Natives is perceived as a
replay of the original creation. Its name is a mistranslation of the Lakota sun gazing dance. Other tribes use different names. It fulfilled many religious purposes: to give thanks to the Creator, to pray for the renewal of the people and earth, to promote health, etc. It also gave an opportunity for people to socialize and renew friendships with other groups. A sweat lodge purifies the participants and readies them for lengthy fasting and
dancing. It was successfully suppressed in most tribes by the Governments of the US and Canada. However, it survived elsewhere and is now being increasingly celebrated.
This is structure which generates hot moist air, similar to a Swedish sauna. It is used for rituals of purification, for spiritual renewal and of healing, for education of the youth, etc. A sweat lodge may be a small structure made of a frame of
saplings, covered with skins, canvas or blanket. A depression is dug in the center into which hot rocks are positioned. Water is thrown on the rocks to create steam. A small flap opening is used to regulate the temperature. As many as a dozen people can be accommodated in some lodges.
These involve the ritual treatment of a bear or other animal after its killing during a successful hunt. The goal is to appease its spirit and convince other animals to be willing to be killed in the future.
The Abramic Religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) trace their development through a series of patriarchs and prophets. Native religions do not have corresponding ancient revered persons in their background. There have been a few prophets among the Natives - the most famous being Handsome Lake in the Iroquois Confederacy. However, they appeared after the European invasion.
There were many variations across North America: conical
wigwams or tipis, long houses, and cliff dwellings. The shape of the structure often represents a model of the cosmos.
Top Quote and information from: Native American Religions by Arlene Hirschfelder and Paulette Molin (Facts on File, New York, 1992, ISBN 0-8160-2017-5)